Due to its geographic position, the archipelago was one of the first lands in the New World, recorded in nautical chart in 1500 by the Spanish cartographer Juan de La Cosa and in 1502 by the Portuguese Alberto Cantino, this named "Lent".
Its discovery in 1503, is attributed to navigator Amerigo Vespucci, participant of the second exploratory expedition to the Brazilian coast, commanded by Gonçalo Coelho and financed by Portuguese nobleman Ferdinand Loronha, young christian, extraction tenant of Pau-Brazil.
"Paradise is here," said Vespucci when boarded that desert island on August 10, 1503, shortly after the sinking of the main ship of the six that made up the expedition. The letter to the LETTERA, is the first document on the Island, which called São Lourenço, speaks of "infinite waters and infinite trees; very tame birds that came to eat the hands; All-Good one port that was good for the whole crew. " Due to the discovery, in 1504, it was donated to Ferdinand Loronha, which had financed the expedition. It was the first Hereditary Brazil, but never occupied by its done.
Abandoned for over two centuries and situated on the route of the great navigations, it was approached by many people, being temporarily occupied in the seventeenth century by the Dutch (who called it "Pavonia") and in the eighteenth century by French (which renamed it "Ile Delphine ").
This point vulnerable to invasions motivated the definite occupation by Portugal, through the province of Pernambuco, from 1737, and built the defensive system with ten fortifications - "the most fortified system of the eighteenth century in Brazil" - among them the Fortress N.Sª of the Remedies. Most of these forts are still standing today and the other remaining architectural evidence.
At the same time, the Archipelago transformed into a Common Prison for prisoners sentenced to long terms. It was these convicts hand labor that raised all the built heritage and the road system that connects villages and forts. The cruel regime had even solitary and stone beds, in which the prisoner could barely turn around.
For disciplinary action in order to avoid leaks and stuck up caches, since that time the original vegetation was being cleared by changing the climate of the archipelago. For this reason, only a few places on the island can be seen a bit of the original vegetation, as in shoe tip, on the slopes of Morro do Pico and the lookouts Sancho, Dolphin Bay and Lion Beach.
Famous scientists visited the archipelago at different times, as the naturalist Charles Darwin, father of the Theory of Evolution of Species, in 1832. All were attracted by its great biodiversity and collected data on the environment, describing it in memorable works. Also in the nineteenth century, artists like the French Debret and Lassaily recorded in screen human occupation.
In 1938 the archipelago was ceded to the Union for the installation of a Political Prison. In 1942, during World War II, created to the Federal Military Territory, together with the Mixed Detachment of War and the alliance with the US Navy, which installed one Support Base with about 300 men.
During this period, an overpopulation of more than 3,000 expeditionary conditioned building precast houses to shelter them. From 1942 to 1988, the island was administered by the military: Army, until 1981; Aeronautics, until 1986; and EMFA until 1987. Yet federal territory passed to the MINTER, having its unique Civil Governor. During this period, between 1957 and 1965, there was a new American presence in the Observation Post of Guided Missiles.
In 1988, under the Constituent Assembly, was reinstated to the State of Pernambuco, today is a State District. Also in 1988 it created the National Marine Park, coexisting in the space of 26 square kilometers, the PARNAMAR / FN and the state Environmental Protection Area. Photo: Flavio Costa and Renata Victor.
On December 13, 2001, UNESCO considered the SITE NATURAL HERITAGE WORLD archipelago, having the diploma was tabled on 27 December 2002. In 2003, it will be the 500th anniversary of the Fernando de Noronha input in human history. 500th anniversary of its first approach to its description by one of the greatest navigators in history, Americo Vespucio.
Vila dos Remedios
Although discovered in 1503 and donated as a Hereditary in 1504, the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago remained abandoned for more than two centuries, receiving passing approaches browsers of various nationalities.
In the seventeenth century the Dutch remained there for 25 years. Almost nothing exists as a brand that time, apart from a part of the current fortress walls of Remedies (where a stronghold was built for them in 1629) and the spaces of agricultural experiments.
Reports of that time speak of "warehouses", "dwelling houses", "goods storage warehouse", "corral", "gardens", a small "Congregation Reformed Calvinist" among other constructive evidences for such a long occupation. In addition to the "Elizabeth Gardens", where cultures were experimented, mainly indigo. And the space of this "village" Dutch was just where did VILLAGE OF REMEDIES, in the following century, after the definite occupation by Portugal, through the province of Pernambuco.
The strategic conditions of this place were evident: close to a water flow called Mulungu Stream and other sources; easy access to the Dog Creek, which eventually served anchorage; drinking water source transformed after the Bica do Cachorro; direct access to the new fort (Remedies). It was all believe that this is the ideal place for the implementation of the main village.
The urban layout of Vila dos Remedios, with its planned structure, was composed of two courtyards (two spatial units). In the upper space, the Administration was the civil power, and the lower, the church, the religious power. The whole area was paved in stone and the buildings were large forever. It is worth noting that one of the main functions of the village, in its origin, was supporting the prison system also deployed to that time. Strategically the town should not be seen from the sea.
THE VILLAGE OF REMEDIES emerged as the main urban center of the island. In it were, from the eighteenth century, the administration, with its public buildings, the penitentiary lodging and workshops for inmates, the Church, the command square or plaza d'weapons, the dwelling houses, the warehouse, school, hospital and warehouses for storage of agricultural production and genres coming from the mainland.
It has also elicited the road footwear system throughout the island, using the model "head deny" whenever there is concern for the drainage of rainwater and soil conservation, a procedure adopted in the streets and courtyards that define the village.
For over two hundred years this core was used and maintained in its original structure, with minor modifications and additions. In 1938, upon delivery of the archipelago to the Union, architecturally the village was extremely well looked after.
Large interference and defacements were felt for the most part, from 1942, with the occupation took place in World War II. He was lost, then part of the ancient urban face, resulting in the influence of prefabricated building, its practicality in times of emergency, making it a reference in this technology.
Fernando de Noronha was only definitely occupied from 1737, after the expulsion of the French who had taken over the island a year earlier. Considering the danger posed to Brazil the existence of an archipelago strategically located amidst the crossing of the Atlantic, Portugal, through the province of Pernambuco, decided to fortify it conveniently. For this, fortifications were erected at all strategic points where the landing was possible, thus avoiding the approach browsers, as had been occurring since the sixteenth century.
Ten forts were built, nine on the main island (the only inhabited) and just one in the rocky islet, located in front of the Sto port. Anthony, with the specific task of defending the main existing natural harbor.
Of these, only the Fortress of Nossa Senhora dos Remedios was listed by IPHAN in 1961, while the remaining copies of the defense system out of the process. Only from the "Document Retrieval Program on Fernando de Noronha," it is that it was sent, its coordination, the request for tipping of the entire system.